The word Hernia comes from the Greek word “hernios”, meaning a bulge or protrusion of tissue. It is usually composed of bowel or fat and it comes through a natural or acquired opening in the abdominal wall. There are places at the abdominal wall that are predisposed to develop hernias, due to congenital weakness of the soft tissue. It is usually found in the groin, navel or the site of previous surgery.
As the name implies, this type of hernia is in the groin, and accounts for 75% of all abdominal wall hernias and is about 15 times more common in men than in women. Depending on the starting point, these hernias are divided into direct and indirect.
In this type of hernia the hernia comes through the femoral canal, near the area where the femoral nerve, artery and vein pass from the abdomen to the leg. It is located below the inguinal ligament and it presents as a lump under the inguinal folds. It is more common in women, and has a higher risk of complications than inguinal hernias.
Developed or acquired weakness at the naval ring is the cause of the umbilical hernia, which presents as a lump at the navel area.
ABDOMINAL (VENTRAL) HERNIA
Surgical procedures on the abdominal wall may later lead to the appearance of a hernia in that site. According to statistics, the possibility of such a hernia after surgery ranges from 2 to 10%.
Symptoms of hernias can be very different, and that is why hernias are divided into:
– Asymptomatic hernia is a hernia without pain or discomfort to the patient.
– Symptomatic hernia is a hernia that causes symptoms such as feeling slight pain, difficulty and discomfort in the area where the hernia is located.
– Impacted hernia is a hernia that is incarcerated and it presents as a very severe pain and lump in the area of the hernia along with abdominal distention, nausea and vomiting, and requires immediate surgical intervention.
– Clinical examination is usually all that is required to diagnose a hernia.
– In rare cases, when it comes to small asymptomatic and rare hernias, it is necessary to perform some additional checks, such as:
Hernias are exclusively treated surgically and all surgical procedures can be divided into:
– No-tension technique is performed with the help of a synthetic surgical net that can be of non-absorbable or absorbable materials. Depending on the method of the application, net-operating procedures can be divided into traditional and laparoscopic. Classic no-tension technique is the most frequently applied method because it allows:
– Rapid postoperative recovery and work capacity
– Lower pain intensity.
– This technique still has a great success in treating hernias, and the percentage of recurrence is less than 1% in terms of specialized hernia centers such as our institution. Tension technique is performed with the help of surrounding tissue that is pulled under tension in the abdominal opening. Today, it is only done on younger patients, because this kind of treatment in the elderly population has a high percentage of relapses that range from 10% to 12%.