Allergic reactions do not depend on the chemical and pharmacological effects of substances, but from their antigen power to make antibodies (for example, if a person takes an aspirin and with higher doses of this drug feels tinnitus, nausea and vomiting – it’s called intoxication, if the same phenomena occurs in a small aspirin doses, then it’s the aspirin intolerance).
If we reliably want to say, for a reaction, that it is of an allergic nature, it is necessary, among other things to prove the existence of antibodies in the organism (by passive transfer or skin tests…). At the beginning of the 20th century (1926) the existence of histamine was revealed in tissues.
Allergens can be any substance from the outside world and various components of the body that have changed under the influence of degenerative, inflammatory or other processes. In their contents allergens are usually proteins, but carbohydrates may also act as allergens. Among the most common allergens, are: household dust, bed items, mold, bacteria, pollen, some animal hair, eggs, milk, chocolate, tomatoes, fish, drugs: penicillin, streptomycin, iodine, serum, aspirin, sulfonamides, chloramphenicol.
After the penetration of allergens into the body, it stimulates the reticuloendothelial system to produce antibodies, which then reach the part of superficial cells of shocked tissue: bronchial mucosa, nose, intestine or skin. The body is then sensitized. This period lasts for 2-3 weeks and the re-penetration of allergens in the already sensitive body leads to antigen-antibody reactions, i.e. to the release of toxic substances in such increased quantities: histamine, acetylcholine, bradykinin, serotonin, etc.
The predisposition for an allergy is primarily inheritance. According to statistics of some American authors, if the mother is an allergist, the children will also be allergic in 50% of cases, if the father is an allergist then the children are likely to be allergic in 25% of cases, if both parents have it, the probability is 75%.
The clinical picture consists of allergic reactions in the form of asthma attacks, sneezing, urticaria, etc.. Allergic disease has a sudden onset and may follow severe shocks.
It is necessary to immediately see the doctor, in order to prevent possible complications.