Surgery is the branch of clinical medicine that deals with the study and treatment of diseases that must be treated by a surgeon’s hands using mechanical means (instruments). Operative surgery can be divided according to treatment approach into four groups:

  • Wound repair
  • Extirpation of the diseased parts or whole tissues and organs
  • Reconstructive surgery
  • Physiological surgery

In order to achieve successful operation, in addition to the manual dexterity of the surgeon it is necessary to have extensive medical training and knowledge as well as engineering and technology. Due to the progress of surgery and the increasing degrees of knowledge, as well as the development of many surgical techniques, all with the aim of providing better medical services to patients, the field of surgery is at an all time peak. This has led to the continuous development of various surgical disciplines. Today, surgery has a number of branches, such as:

– neurosurgery
–  maxillofacial surgery
–  orthopedics
–  plastic and reconstructive surgery
–  thoracic surgery
–  abdominal surgery
–   vascular surgery
–   urology

as well as numerous other sub-disciplines.